Translation of 15D questionnaire into Romanian language to study quality of life of cancer patients in Romania


  • Adina Turcu-Stiolica University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova
  • Mihaela-Simona Subtirelu University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova



QoL, 15D questionnaire, translation, validation


The 15D is a self-administered questionnaire for assessment of health-related quality of life, which contains 15 questions with 5 response options each. This research was aimed to translate the 15D questionnaire into Romanian to use for cancer patients and scientific community. The standard procedure of forward-backward translation was used in the translation procedure. The original questionnaire was given to two independent forward-translators (one English teacher and one experienced translator). The second step was the backward-translation with two English speakers who translated the first consensus version into English. The back translation was compared with the original version. The third step was the pilot-test on 15 patients and 10 healthy people. The patients’ obstacles in understanding and completing the questionnaires were reviewed and used to modify the questionnaires by the translation group. The final Romanian version of the 15D can be used for the next step of validation.


U.S.Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Patient Reported Outcome Measures: Use in Medical Product Development and Labeling Claims Dec, 2009 Available from:

Ballatori E, Roila F. Impact of nausea and vomiting on quality of life in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2003;1(1):1-11.

Kleijn WC, Ogoshi K, Yamaoka K, Shigehisa T, Takeda Y, Creutzberg C, et al. Conceptual equivalence and health-related quality of life: an exploratory study in Japanese and Dutch cancer patients. Quality of life research. 2006;15(6):1091-101.

Sintonen H. The 15D instrument of health-related quality of life: properties and applications. Annals of medicine. 2001;33(5):328-36.

Saarni SI, Härkänen T, Sintonen H, Suvisaari J, Koskinen S, Aromaa A, et al. The impact of 29 chronic conditions on health-related quality of life: a general population survey in Finland using 15D and EQ-5D. Quality of life Research. 2006;15(8):1403-14.

Available from:

Salo J, Niemelä A, Joukamaa M, Koivukangas J. Effect of brain tumour laterality on patients' perceived quality of life. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2002;72(3):373-7.

Haapaniemi T, Sotaniemi K, Sintonen H, Taimela E. The generic 15D instrument is valid and feasible for measuring health related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2004;75(7):976-83.

Kannisto M, Merikanto J, Alaranta H, Hokkanen H, Sintonen H. Comparison of health-related quality of life in three subgroups of spinal cord injury patients. Spinal cord. 1998;36(3):193-9.

Hahl J, Hämäläinen H, Sintonen H, Simell T, Arinen S, Simell O. Health-related quality of life in type 1 diabetes without or with symptoms of long-term complications. Quality of Life Research. 2002;11(5):427-36.

Rissanen P, Aro S, Slätis P, Sintonen H, Paavolainen P. Health and quality of life before and after hip or knee arthroplasty. The Journal of arthroplasty. 1995;10(2):169-75.

Stach-Lempinen B, Sintonen H, Kujansuu E. The relationship between clinical parameters and health-related quality of life as measured by the 15D in incontinent women before and after treatment. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. 2004;83(10):983-8.

Ferreira KA, Kimura M, Teixeira MJ, Mendoza TR, da Nóbrega JCM, Graziani SR, et al. Impact of cancer-related symptom synergisms on health-related quality of life and performance status. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2008;35(6):604-16.

Ware Jr JE, Gandek B. Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 1998;51(11):903-12.